Final Exam Study Guide

Below you will find the grammar elements that you will see on the final exam. The page numbers refer to those sections of the book that you should study if you are having problems with any of these. There are more detailed study sheets attached to this page; they are the same ones that I provided in class.

Subjects and verbs (p. 317-20)

  1. subjects – know that they can never be in an incomplete thought
  2. verbs – make sure you can distinguish between the verb that goes with each noun in the sentence

Fragments (p. 327-32)

  1. incomplete thoughts. They do not have both a subject and a verb that tells what the subject is doing.
  2. sentences that begin with coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
  3. incomplete thoughts that follow the use of a semicolon (;) or a comma+conjunction in a sentence
  4. be VERY familiar with common prepositions (p. 327) and dependent words (p. 328)

Fused sentences (p. 338-47)

  1. two complete thoughts that are connected by nothing at all
  2. two complete thoughts that are connected ONLY with a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
  3. fix them by separating them with a semicolon, a period, or a comma+conjunction

Comma splices (p. 338-47)

  1. two complete thoughts that are connected using only a comma
  2. fix them by adding a conjunction to the comma OR by replacing the comma with a period or a semicolon

Subject-verb agreement errors (p. 352-58)

  1. having a subject that is singular and a verb that is plural
  2. having a subject that is plural and a verb that is singular
  3. using the incorrect verb with a compound subject
    1. and – needs a plural verb
    2. or – needs a singular verb
  4. fix it by memorizing indefinite pronouns ( p. 357) and by learning verb forms

Phrases and clauses (p. 317-20)

  1. be able to identify a prepositional phrase (not just the preposition)
  2. be able to identify a dependent clause (not just the dependent word)
  3. know where they can appear in a sentence (at the beginning, in the middle, at the end) and know where the commas go

Pronouns (p. 381-88)

  1. be able to identify the antecedent in a sentence and any pronouns that refer to it
  2. memorize the indefinite pronouns that are always singular (p. 384)
  3. be able to correctly identify a collective noun (p. 385) and know which pronouns can refer to it (“it,” “its”)

Commas (p. 497-501)

  1. be able to correctly place introductory commas (497-98)
  2. be able to correctly place commas around appositives (498-99)
  3. be able to correctly identify adjective clauses as essential or nonessential and be able to place commas correctly around nonessential clauses (500-01)