2. Clauses

ALL CLAUSES have a subject and a verb. But not all clauses are sentences. You can have two kinds of clauses:

Independent – this is the same thing as a sentence, the same thing as a complete thought. It is where the subject and the subject’s verbs are located.

Dependent – it always begins with a dependent word, and I will give you a word bank of dependent words on the test. However, you need to know what is in the dependent clause besides the dependent word.

1. If the dependent clause is at the beginning of a sentence, it includes everything from the dependent word up until the comma that separates it from the subject.

Example: Because you are studying for the test, you will probably do well.

  • Dependent word (begins the dependent clause): Because
  • Last word in the dependent clause: test
  • Dependent clause: Because you are studying for the test

Notice that there is a prepositional phrase (“for the test”) included in the dependent clause. Include it when you tell me what the dependent clause is.

2. If the dependent clause is at the end of a sentence, FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS TEST, it will include everything from the dependent clause to the end of the sentence.

Example: You will probably do well because you are studying for the test.

  • Dependent word (begins the dependent clause): because
  • Last word in the dependent clause: test
  • Dependent clause: because you are studying for the test

Again, there is a prepositional phrase (“for the test”) included in the dependent clause. Include it when you tell me what the dependent clause is.

3. On the test, you may have a dependent clause at both the beginning of the sentence and the end.

Example: Because you are studying for the test, you will probably do well, despite the fact that you did not do well on the first exam.

  • Dependent word (begins the dependent clause): Because
  • Last word in the dependent clause: test
  • Dependent clause: Because you are studying for the test

AND

  • Dependent word (begins the dependent clause): despite
  • Last word in the dependent clause: exam
  • Dependent clause: despite the fact that you did not do well on the first exam

Because grammar is complicated, dependent clauses are also fragments. So are prepositional phrases and adjective clauses.

Fragments are any collections of words that ARE NOT SENTENCES but look like they are trying to be sentences.